Any building consists of three main elements – these are walls, foundations and floors. The floors can be replaced without changing the design of the building, moreover, such elements are often made of wood, which, with intensive operation, wear out quickly enough, destroyed or damaged. So the replacement or strengthening of floors is an ordinary task. You can solve it in two ways:
Strengthening by increasing the cross section of the ceiling.
Such a task is facing the owner of the building if it is planned to change the functional purpose of the room located at the floor, or increase the load on the ceiling, for example, the alteration of the attic into a residential attic.
If the beams are damaged along the entire length, then they are replaced. Damaged beams are removed, and in the remaining nests in the walls you need to install new. To be able to increase the load on the floor, it is necessary to reduce the step between the beams – for this you need to insert additional beams between the available. As an option, you can increase the section of existing beams due to bars, boards – they are nailed to each beam from both sides. Such an operation is performed using such improvised tools as a hammer, nails and glue to glue the wood with roofing material. Do not forget about the impregnation of wood with an antiseptic composition.
The thickness of the linings on the beams designed to increase their cross section should be at least 38 mm, the exact figure can be said only after the corresponding calculations that will take into account the load on the supporting structures. All overlays designed to strengthen the floors made of wood should be saturated with a protective composition and covered with a layer of roofing material in places of contact with walls or reinforced concrete structures.
As for the strengthening of reinforced concrete floors, they can be strengthened by adding metal rods or building a concrete layer – concreting is carried out on both sides of the beam. To ensure good adhesion of concrete with a beam, it is necessary to expose the reinforcement, build it up and pour a layer of torque concrete. If the reinforcing rods are affected by rust, then they must be covered with a layer of anti -corrosion composition and concrete. The finish layer on the surface of the ceilings is cement-lime plaster, the thickness of the layer of which should be at least 1.5 cm.
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